Vietnamese Culture - A 1970's Perspective
                     copyright 1996, Vn-families

Issue #7. The legend of Princess Lieu Hanh, George F. Schultz, Vietnam 
Bulletin, Feb 15, 1971.

This is a set of reprints from the Vietnam Bulletin, a weekly 
publication by the Vietnamese Embassy in Washington, DC, during the 
period from 1967 to 1975. The original articles were not copyrighted. 

We will run this column weekly until we run out of interesting cultural 
Please direct all questions to [email protected]
Here is the proposed schedule of this column.

Issue #1:  Tet 1971 in Vietnam! by Phu Si, VB710118 - Jan 17, 1996
Issue #2:  The Unicorn dance at Tet, by Minh Tam, VB710118.
Issue #3:  The origin of Tao Quan, the three kitchen gods, by
           George F. Schultz, VB710118.
Issue #4:  1971 - The year of the Pig, by Van Ngan, VB710118.
Issue #5   The Joy of "first writing of the new year", by Thuy Ngoc,
Issue #6:  Traditional Vietnamese male attire, by Van Ngan, VB710208 -
Issue #7:  The legend of Princess Lieu Hanh, George F. Schultz, VB710215 
           - Feb 28, 1996
Issue #8:  The dialogue on Mount Na-Son, George F. Schultz, VB710222 -
           March 6, 1996.
This is the first of a long series of articles on Vietnamese legends.
                  Adapted by George F. Schultz

The events described in this legend are said to have taken place during 
the reign of the Emperor Le Anh Tong, who ruled over Dai Viet from 1556 
to 1573.

Since the exiled princess was a daughter of Ngoc Hoang, the Emperor of 
Jade, supreme deity of the Taoists, we may suppose that the story is of 
Taoist inspiration.

The legend is sometimes entitled "The Exiled Fairy" since the celestial 
princess was of  course an immortal or fairy (tien).

One autumn night, the Emperor Le Anh Tong had a strange prophetic dream. 
Under the high ceiling of a vast hall, the supporting columns of which 
were made of the four precious stones he saw two rows of mandarins, 
arrayed in magnificent court dress, standing attentively. In the center 
of the hall, at the top of the nine steps, Ngoc Hoang, the Jade Emperor, 
dressed in a magnificent tunic embroidered with golden dragons, was 
seated on his throne.

A young maiden then entered the hall; as she walked toward, the pearls 
dangling from the  sash at her waist tingled harmoniously. Standing near 
the steps leading up to the throne, she held in her hands a jade cup in 
which she offered Ngoc Hoang the Wine of Longevity. As the Jade Emperor 
learned forward to receive the cup, it fell from the maiden's grasp and 
crashed to the floor, breaking into a thousand pieces.

Immediately, a genie seated to the Jade Emperor's left was seen  to open 
a large book and inscribe two characters therein. Two courtiers then 
conducted the unfortunate maiden towards a door over which was written 
in golden characters: "EXILE BY IMPERIAL DECREE." This inscription was 
followed by the character for "south (nam)". It was evident that because 
of her carelessness in serving the Jade Emperor the maiden had been 
banished from the Celestial Empire and thenceforth would have to seek an 
existence on the dark, unfriendly Earth below.

Emperor Le Anh Tong awakened with a start. The palace was filled with a 
bright light, and the sweet smell of incense invaded his chamber. A 
courtier was kneeling on the phoenix-embroidered mat; when ordered to 
speak, he informed the emperor that during the night the empress had 
given birth to a princess. She was named Lieu Hanh.


As Princess Lieu Hanh grew to womanhood, she became famous throughout 
the Empire of Dai Viet for her perfect beauty. She preferred to live in 
a small palace at some distance from the court, which her father had 
been pleased to build for her there so that she might pursue her studies 
in quietude.

The princess loved to sit at the edge of a pool fringed with lotus 
blossoms, painting rustic landscapes or playing the lute or the flute. 
She would oftentimes compose verses in honor of the four seasons of the 
year, and these she would then sing to her own accompaniment.

As the pure tones of the maiden's lute floated through the soft air of 
the garden, the Emperor would go there to listen. Then he would be 
struck by a sad melancholy which seemed to penetrate to his very soul. 
He would frown as he spoke.

"Why must you play these sorrowful airs?" he would ask.

Having no answer for her father's question, Princess Lieu Hanh would 
remain silent.

When the Emperor decided that it was time for the princess to marry, he 
selected a handsome young mandarin named Dao Lang to be her husband. 
Although she seemed quite happy with married life, three years later the 
princess took sick and died.


After his wife's death, the mandarin was rarely seen at court. He spent 
most of his time in the princess's little palace, where he could sit at 
the edge of the lotus pool. He had kept a few locks of his wife's hair, 
which still retained the fragrance of her perfume. In the silent garden 
he seemed to hear again the pure tones of the lute of former times.

At the end of a year, as was the custom, Princess Lieu Hanh's coffin was 
opened so that her remains could be laid to rest in her permanent tomb. 
When the coffin was found to be empty, Dao Lang turned pale and was 
unable to speak or move.

The following day, the mandarin requested an audience with the Emperor 
and begged to be permitted to resign his position at court so that he 
might retire to his native village of Ton Huong, in Nghe An province. 
His resignation was accepted.


On Dao Lang's return to his native village, he again visited the sites 
dear to the Immortals. The rumble of the sea was heard beneath the 
purple slopes of Mt. Hoanh Son, the home of flocks of colorful herons. 
The little village of Ton Huong was backed against a hill covered with 
fragrant plants. Dao Lang was fond of strolling about under the tall 
trees, where he could listen to the murmur of a hidden spring that 
seemed to accompany his reveries.

One day, the young widower set off along a path shaded by century-old 
sophoras; it led to an old temple, the half-broken steps of which lay 
hidden under piles of dead leaves. On a branch he saw a piece of red 
paper on which were written some verses in old characters, their  
meaning unclear. For a moment he thought he detected footsteps on the 
soft moss; but he saw no one.

The following day, he returned to the temple and waited. There was a 
mysterious rustle in the silent woods; then a little puff of wind 
bearing a familiar fragrance met his steps as he moved forward. Suddenly 
he perceived the shadow of the loved one of yesteryear appear under the 
dark vault of the sophoras.

The princess's approach was signaled by the sound of the pearls dangling 
from the sash at her waist. When they met, she told her husband of her 
origin and of how she had come to be exiled to the Earth.

"The period of my exile has come to a close," she said,  "but the magic 
peace of the garden and the lotus pond will remain with me forever. 
Today we have met again; however, no one can say how long we may be able 
to remain together."


In the shade of a mango tree, a son was born to the reunited couple; 
their happiness seemed complete. One evening, the princess played some 
old familiar melodies on the flute. The cold tones slipping from the 
instrument produced a feeling of nostalgia. When the last note had faded 
away, Dao Lang stood motionless, looking at the moonlight on a quiet 

From afar, as if from an unknown land, a serene melody rose through the 
air. Then it faded into space, although the effect seemed to remain. 
Lieu Hanh shuddered; laying aside the flute, she walked towards her 

"It is time to part again," she said simply. "Farewell."

Dao Lang gave no sign of comprehension. Slowly his wife receded towards 
the door and raised the curtain. The sound of her pearls tinkled 
harmoniously and then everything was silent.


Their son became a famous scholar.

Dao Lang erected a small altar under the sophoras in the sacred woods 
that had witnessed his meeting with Princess Lieu Hanh. This altar is 
still to be seen in the vicinity of Ton Huong.